Pain and Behaviour

Pain and Behaviour

Pain in CdLS can be caused by dental problems, bladder and upper respiratory tract (including ears and sinuses) infections, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and/or hip abnormalities. GORD is a condition in which a weakness in the muscles above the stomach allows stomach acid to move upwards into the oesophagus. Due to limited communicative abilities, individuals with CdLS may be unable to report pain and it may be difficult to identify the cause (65). Pain in CdLS can lead to substantial behavioural difficulties.

Scales have been developed to help identify pain in individuals who have difficulties communicating. If it is suspected that a person with CdLS is in pain, the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) scale is a useful tool that can assist in identifying pain (66). The FLACC scale can help to identify different sources and symptoms of pain in a person with CdLS (R18).

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Adapted from: Kline, A. D., Moss, J. F., Selicorni, A., Bisgaard, A., Deardorff, M. A., Gillett, P. M., Ishman, S. L., Kerr, L. M., Levin, A. V., Mulder, P. A., Ramos, F. J., Wierzba, J., Ajmone, P.F., Axtell, D., Blagowidow, N., Cereda, A., Costantino, A., Cormier-Daire, V., FitzPatrick, D., Grados, M., Groves, L., Guthrie, W., Huisman, S., Kaiser, F. J., Koekkoek, G., Levis, M., Mariani, M., McCleery, J. P., Menke, L. A., Metrena, A., O’Connor, J., Oliver, C., Pie, J., Piening, S., Potter, C. J., Quaglio, A. L., Redeker, E., Richman, D., Rigamonti, C., Shi, A., Tümer, Z., Van Balkom, I. D. C. and Hennekam, R. C. (2018).

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Last modified by Gerritjan Koekkoek on 2022/09/29 16:10
Created by Gerritjan Koekkoek on 2019/03/27 15:09

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